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Land-Based Over-the-Horizon Radar Techniques for Monitoring the NE Atlantic Coastal Zone

In: Barale, V. and Gade, M. (Ed): Remote Sensing of the European Seas
Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 447...460, 2008.

Abstract - - Land-based radar remote sensing techniques for measuring oceanic parameters have been developed for some 30 years. This paper describes the fundamentals and possible applications of shore-based High-Frequency (HF) radars, which are operated in the 3-30 MHz frequency range and use groundwave propagation mode of the electromagnetic waves. Depending on the operating frequency selected, working ranges up to 200 nautical miles or a spatial resolution down to 300 m can be achieved. The parameters measured include surface current fields, wave directional spectra, and wind direction. The performance of these systems has been evaluated within several experiments, and after the demonstration of it's operational capabilities, these systems now start to be integrated within monitoring services. In addition to the oceanographic applications, an HF radar can also be used to track ship locations at far ranges.
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